By Professor Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada, Center of Latin American Studies (CLAS). University of Malaya.
Full tittle: The Uses of Drones in Case of Massive Epidemics Contagious Diseases Relief Humanitarian Aid: Wuhan-COVID-19 Crisis.
This paper evaluates the crucial role of drones in the case of massive epidemics contagious diseases relief humanitarian aid such as the Wuhan-COVID-19 crisis. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate how drones in the Wuhan-COVID19 crisis can play a crucial role to help people in quarantine. Basically, we need to assume that in any epidemic contagious diseases always exist the high possibility to interrupt in the people mobility, transportations systems, and commodities mobility immediately. We propose in three areas the uses of drones in the case of massive epidemics contagious diseases relief humanitarian aid: (i) the aerial monitoring massive epidemic contagious diseases spread magnitude evaluation; (ii) the massive epidemic contagious diseases logistic and cargo delivery; (iii) the post-massive epidemic contagious diseases evaluation.
1. A General Review about Drones
The major improvement of drones’ development was between the 2000 and 2020. It is based on the uses of advanced computers, digital cameras with a high resolution, advanced electronic controlling systems, large coverage remote radio control reception systems, and light materials such as plastic and carbon fibbers to build large and light drones, together with advanced GPS and control remote systems. Finally, the advanced drones systems demand is growing geometrically in quality and quantity. The application of drones moves from military to a private use by consumers around the world. It is based on a large variety of drones in size, power, and applications.
This paper encourages the uses of drones in different areas such as military, commercial, natural disasters, epidemics, research, national security, logistic, firefighter, agriculture, geology, meteorology, and environment. Additionally, we need to know the difference that exist between RC planes, quadcopters, drones, smart-platforms, and large drones respectively. This research will remark the difference that exist between RC planes, quadcopters (see Figure 2), drones, smart-platforms (SP) (see Figure 3), and large drones (see Figure 1) is very clear and easy to distinguish. The RC planes is any prototype that try to represent a large real plane in a small scale. The quadcopter is a mix of a formal aerial transportation with different applications and uses. Quadcopter shows a formal aerial transportation system with different applications together with its formal instrumentation of flying. However, the smart-platforms is based on the same concept of quadcopters but with larger and stronger electric engines together with larger structures to flying more long distances to carry heavy cargo for different type of missions. Finally, we have the large drones is a large aircraft with large proportions, larger engines with high power, together with complex software and hardware systems to flying long distances. The large drones never request any pilot to flying, the large drones work based on a controller with experience that he/she can control the large drones with using by high or short waves reception remote control systems or advanced computer systems. At the same time, the main difference between RC planes, quadcopters, drones, smart-platforms, and large drones are based on the take-off/landing style systems: vertical or horizontal), altitude levels, radio remote control reception systems, GPS systems, camera systems, different materials, energy supplier systems (battery or gasoline), mechanical or electric engines, and endurance respectively.
Usually, the take-off/landing horizontal style systems can be observed specially in quadcopters (three rotors, four rotors –classic-, five rotors, six rotors, eight rotors, eighteen rotors) and smart-platforms. The pros of take-off/landing horizontal style systems can be landing anywhere and anytime, but the cons of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems show many limitationsto flying long distance compare to the take-off/landing horizontal style systems such as the case of smart-platforms and large drones. At the same time, the cons of the takeoff/landing horizontal style systems present many difficulties too, especially in the departure and landing process. The pros of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems can fly more long distances. In the case of the aerial video filming and photography by the take-off/landing horizontal style systems can take better videos and photos according to the altitude, angle, stability and coverage. For the take-off/landing vertical style systems cannot take photos and videos for its limitation of the angle, stability, and coverage.
According to this research also quadcopters, drones, smart-platforms, and large drones can be classified by size and weight: Nano-size, Mini-size, Medium size, Large size and Giant size. This research paper is focus on the application of quadcopters, drones, smart-platforms and large drones and drones’ robots. This research would like to clarified that a smart-platform is the mix of the takeoff/landing horizontal style systems and the take-off/landing vertical style systems together. The main objective of any smart-platform is to offer an alternative system of aviation support with different applications. In our case, we suggest two applications for the smart-platform such as a spread pesticide for epidemics (Wuhan-COVIN-19) smart platform and the epidemics cargo express smart platform that can supply basic items to the infected cases in any case of epidemics such as Wuhan-COVIN-19: water, food, medicines, lights, communication systems (radios). Basically, we need to build a special infrastructure basically deposits to keep a basic storage (e.g. food, water, and medicines) that we can supply anytime and anywhere to people in quarantine at different places simultaneously. At the same time, any Quadcopter, Drone, Smart-Platform requests the construction of special platforms that can facilitate the departure and landing faster and safely in case of a large epidemic contagious diseases such as the case of Wuhan and another province of China. These Drones or platforms will be called Emergency Drone-ports or Smart-Platforms that can facilitate the uses of quadcopters, drones, and smart-platforms efficiently.
Hence, any quadcopter, drone, and smart-platform requests the uses of Droneports or smart-platforms to generate an efficient and systematic logistic coordination computing system and good facilities in the maintenance of quadcopters, drones, and smart-platforms activities in any case of a large and destructive and massive epidemic with large magnitudes of destruction. Basically, any Droneports or smart-platform request six basic requirements: (1.) keeps large storage deposits; (2.) efficient electricity plants and faster charger systems; (3.) large stock of parts and accessories; (4.) the strategic geographical location according to the high population density; (5.) full sterilization and disinfect full drone after landing; (6.) the design of special routes for flying Quadcopters, drones, and smart-platforms anytime and anywhere. Another important issue needs to be included in the uses of quadcopters, drones, and smart-platforms is necessary to design different prototypes according to the natural disaster event. The creation of different types of quadcopters, drones, and smart-platforms for each type of epidemic event according to its departure and landing facilities, design and equipment to help people in quarantine for the critical time. Basically, the adaptability of the quadcopter, drone and smartplatform for any case of a massive epidemic emergency. In fact, the advantages to using the quadcopter, drone, and smart-platform is according to its adaptability and efficiency in case of a large epidemic devastation to give enough support to download a basic cargo with storages just at time in the post-epidemic critical timing through release small-containers and let the same Smart-Platform can return to its Droneports or Smart-Platform to return for bring more shipment as soon as possible again, at the same time the cleaning part of the drone under sterilization and disinfect constantly.
This research proposes that a quadcopter, drone, and smart-platform has three basic missions in any epidemic quarantine event: (i) the aerial monitoring postepidemic damage evaluation; (ii) the epidemic logistic and cargo delivery; (iii) the post-epidemic aerial evaluation. Firstly, the aerial monitoring post-epidemic damage evaluation by using quadcopters can help us to evaluate the real situation and magnitude of the damage in any massive epidemic contagious diseases such as Wuhan-COVIN-19.
Secondly, the massive epidemic contagious diseases logistic and cargo delivery role of smart-platforms is to bring basic items such as water, food, lights, radios with large coverage, medicines, and communication systems as basic internet connectivity systems.
Thirdly, it is the post-epidemic aerial evaluation to evaluate the contagious cases damage after of any epidemic event.
These three basic missions of the quadcopters, drones and smart-platforms can give us a precise epidemic response and relief humanitarian aid framework in case of massive epidemic contagious diseases in the present days. Finally, the uses of quadcopters, drones and smart-platforms request pilots with certain training and abilities to manage to flying this new type of technology and also the survivors force to learn how to manage discharge all items from the drone or smart-platform. In the closed future, we can observe that the quadcopters, drones and smart-platforms are moving to transform itself into drones’ robots that can help in the easy interaction between contagious people from a massive epidemic contagious diseases and emergency agencies. In addition, the drones robots are going to facilitate the easy and fast distribution of basic stores in more short time and faster to help quarantine people in the critical post-epidemic event through the use of advanced computer systems with using artificial intelligence, large antennas coverage, sophisticated GPS systems, more detail mapping systems, and especially large delivery systems anytime and anywhere without pilots or operators.
Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo, The Uses of Drones in Case of Massive Epidemics Contagious Diseases Relief Humanitarian Aid: Wuhan-COVID-19 Crisis (February 29, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3546547 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3546547