By Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada, Mantarraya Negra Smart Platforms Co. ltd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
This paper introduces a new concept of unmanned aerial vehicles – UAV’s – are called Smart Flying Platforms (SFP). The main objective of this paper is to evaluate how smart flying platforms in the present and near future can play a crucial role to help to fight terrorism. Basically, we need to assume that in any terrorist attack always exist the high possibility of damage in the people, infrastructure, transportation systems, telecommunications systems access, and basic services immediately. We propose in three areas the uses of smart flying platforms in the case to fight a possible terrorist attack: the aerial monitoring pre-terrorist attack evaluation; the destruction of terrorist logistic and cargo delivery; the post-terrorist attack aerial evaluation.
Keywords: Drones, UAV’s, Terrorism, Indicators.
1. A General Review about the Origins of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles –UAV’sand Its Applications
The construction of the first unmanned aerial vehicle –UAV- (or Drone) was developed in the War World I (WWI) in 1918 with the creation of small planes under the concept of cruise missiles (self-flying aerial torpedo) to attack enemies in short distances. The two creators of the first UAV is Orville Wright and Charles Kettering (electric engineer), The self-flying aerial torpedo (or Kettering Bug) was a wooden biplane (530 pounds that including a heavy bomb of 180 pounds) able to flying a ratio of 75 Miles away, this amazing machine the operator was focused on programming the wind speed, direction, distance to fix the engine revolutions of the Kettering bug that can crash into a fixed target (Ruiz Estrada and Ndoma, 2019). In fact, the Drone’s technology in WWI is more oriented to attack strategic points without return. According to Smithsonian museum the first experimental UAVs, which are technically defined by their capability to return successfully after a mission, were developed in the late 1950s, but the American military actually began designing and developing unmanned aircraft during the first World War (Smithsonian, 2013). Therefore, in the War World II (WWII) the American Air Force starts to use small and conventional planes by using radio remote controls from England to spy on the Germany Nazi territories in Europe to monitoring the Nazi troops moves on land and sea around France, Belgium, and Holland. Later, in the 60s and 70s starts formally the construction of UAV’s by the American Air Force engineers with basic electric systems to manage medium range flaying’s without pilots to observe enemies’ possible targets or moves, but the limitation of powerful radio remote controls to cover large distances to receive an effective radio control reception is limited in this period (Ruiz Estrada and Ndoma, 2019).
The major improvement of UAV’s development was between the 1980s and 1990s. It is based on the uses of advanced and sophisticated computers, digital cameras with a high resolution, advanced electronic controlling systems, large coverage remote radio control reception systems, and light materials such as plastic and carbon fibers to build large and light UAV’s, together with advanced GPS and control remote systems. Finally, from 2000 to 2020 the advanced UAV’s systems demand is growing geometrically in quality and quantity. The application of UAV’s moves from military to a private use by consumers around the world. It is based on a large variety of UAVs in size, power, and applications (Ruiz Estrada and Ndoma, 2019).
This paper proposes a large list of UAV’s applications such as the specific area of terrorism. Additionally, we need to know the difference that exists between RC planes, Quadcopters, Drones, Smart Flying Platforms (SFP), and Large UAV (LUAV) respectively. This research will remark the difference that exists between RC Airplanes, Quadcopters (see Figure 2), Drones, Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) (see Figure 4), and LUAV (See Figure 3) is very clear and easy to distinguish. The RC planes are any prototype that tries to represent a large real plane on a small scale. The Quadcopter is a mix of a formal aerial transportation with different applications and uses. Quadcopter shows a formal aerial transportation system with different applications together with its formal instrumentation of flying. However, the Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) is based on the same concept of Quadcopters but with larger and stronger electric engines together with larger structures to flying more long distances to carry heavy cargo for a different type of missions. Finally, we have the Large Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (LUAV) is a large aircraft with large proportions, larger engines with high power, together with complex software and hardware systems to flying long distances. The LUAV never request any pilot to fly, the LUAV works based on a controller with experience that he/she can control the LUAV with using by high or short-wave reception remote control systems or advanced computer systems. At the same time, the main difference between RC planes, Quadcopters, Drones, Smart Flying Platforms (SFP), and LUAV are based on the takeoff/landing style systems: vertical or horizontal), altitude levels, radio remote control reception systems, GPS systems, camera systems, different materials, energy supplier systems (battery or gasoline), mechanical or electric engines, and endurance respectively (Ruiz Estrada and Ndoma, 2019).
Usually, the take-off/landing horizontal style systems can be observed especially in Quadcopters (three rotors, four rotors –classic-, five rotors, six rotors, eight rotors, eighteen rotors) and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP). The pros of take-off/landing horizontal style systems can be landing anywhere and anytime, but the cons of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems show many limitations to flying long distance compare to the take-off/landing horizontal styles systems such as the case of Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) and LUAV’s. At the same time, the cons of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems present many difficulties too, especially in the departure and landing process. The pros of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems can fly more long distances. In the case of the aerial video filming and photography by the take-off/landing, horizontal style systems can take better videos and photos according to the altitude, angle, stability and coverage. For the take-off/landing, vertical style systems cannot take photos and videos for its limitation of the angle, stability, and coverage (Ruiz Estrada and Ndoma, 2019).
According to this research also Quadcopters, Drones, Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) and LUAV’s can be classified by size and weight: Nano-Size, Mini-Size, Medium size, Large size and Giant size. This research paper focuses on the application of Quadcopters, Drones, Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) and LUAV’s, and UAV Robots. This research would like to clarify that a Smart Flying Platform (SFP) is the mix of the take-off/landing horizontal style systems and the take-off/landing vertical style systems together. The main objective of any Smart Flying Platform (SFP) is to offer an alternative system of aviation support with different applications. In our case, we suggest a specific application for the Smart Flying Platform (SFP) such as terrorist attacks that can supply help to defend and bring basic items to the soldiers in any case of faith terrorism: water, food, medicines, lights, communication systems (radios). Basically, we need to build a special infrastructure basically deposits to keep a basic storage (e.g. food, water, and medicines) that we can supply anytime and anywhere to soldiers in different places simultaneously. At the same time, any Quadcopter, Drone, Smart Flying Platform (SFP) requests the construction of special platforms that can facilitate the departure and landing faster and safely in case to fight terrorism will be called Smart-Flying Ports that can facilitate departures or landing of Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) efficiently.
Hence, any Quadcopter, Drone, and Smart Flying Platform (SFP) request the uses of Smart-Flying Ports to generate an efficient and systematic logistic coordination computing system and good facilities in the maintenance of Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) activities in any case to fight terrorist actions. Basically, any Smart-Flying Port request five basic requirements: (1.) keeps large storage deposits; (2.) efficient electricity plants and faster charger systems; (3.) large stock of parts and accessories; (4.) the strategic geographical location according to the high population density in high risk of a terrorist attach anytime and anywhere; (5.) the design of special routes for flying Quadcopters, Drones and Smart-Platforms (SP) anytime and anywhere. Another important issue needs to be included in the uses of Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) is necessary to design different prototypes according to fight terrorist actions efficiently. The creation of different types of Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) for each type of terrorist attack according to its departure and landing facilities, design and equipment to help soldiers in the critical time. Basically, the adaptability of the Quadcopter, Drone, and Smart Flying Platform (SFP) for any case of prompt terrorist attack reaction. In fact, the advantages to using the Quadcopter, Drone and Smart Flying Platform (SFP) is according to its adaptability and efficiency in case of a large terrorist attack devastation to give enough support to download a basic cargo with storages just at time in the fight terrorist actions critical timing through release small containers and let the same Smart Flying Platform (SFP) can return to its Smart-Flying Port to return for bring more shipment as soon as possible again.
This research proposes that a Quadcopter, Drone, and Smart Flying Platform (SFP) has three basic missions in any terrorist action: (i) the aerial monitoring pre-terrorist possible actions evaluation; (ii) the destruction of terrorists logistic and cargo delivery; (iii) the postterrorist attack aerial evaluation. Firstly, the aerial monitoring pre-terrorist possible actions and damage evaluation by using Smart Platforms can help us to evaluate the real situation and magnitude of the damage in any terrorist attack. Secondly, the natural disaster logistic and cargo delivery role of Smart-Platforms (SP) is to bring basic items such as water, food, lights, radios with large coverage, medicines, and communication systems as basic internet connectivity systems. Thirdly, it is the post-natural disaster aerial evaluation to evaluate the final human and infrastructure damage after of any natural disaster event.
These three basic missions of the Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) can give us a precise terrorist attacks response in case of a terrorist attacks response in the near future. Finally, the uses of Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) request pilots with certain training and abilities to manage to fly this new type of technology and also the survivor's force to learn how to manage discharge all items from the Drone or Smart Flying Platform (SFP). In the closed future, we can observe that the Quadcopters, Drones, and Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) are moving to transform itself into UAV’s robots that can help in the easy interaction between soldiers and suppliers. In addition, the UAV’s robots are going to facilitate the easy and fast distribution of basic stores in more short time and faster to help soldiers in the critical post-natural disaster event through the use of advanced computer systems with using artificial intelligence, large antennas coverage, sophisticated GPS systems, more detail mapping systems, and especially large delivery systems anytime and anywhere without pilots or operators.
Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo, The Uses of Smart Flying Platforms (SFP) to Fight Terrorist Attacks (October 24, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3474759