By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ilina Armencheva, Prof. Dr. Natalia Atanasova and Asst. Prof Dr. Ivaylo Ivanov; National Defense College, Sofia, Bulgaria.
While the world is becoming increasingly interdependent, the countries are evermore dependent on information systems, high-speed communications and artificial intelligence. That is increasing the risks and threats to citizens' privacy, global trade, the resilient of critical infrastructure and even the readiness of the armed forces. Traditional security measures are lagging behind new challenges and they are insufficient to prevent emerging risks. The potential damage that these threats can inflict on security and economy grows tremendously, but countermeasures needs to be sophisticated and thus difficult for implementation.
The 21st century instead to be the era of technologies and information revolutions is becoming of synonymous of global risks and uncertainty.
This article explore the transformation of relations in cyberspace as a result of globalization and the development of information technologies, that create preconditions for new forms of criminal activity - cyberwar, cyber terrorism and cybercrime. The globalization of social and political processes lead to globalization of crime, which now is transnational. Today becomes more and more obvious the need for conceptual clarity and innovative approaches in security study for cyber threats in modern society. Understanding of interconnection between globalization in cyberspace and increasing insecurity in it as a consequence of that globalization and the relation between new information technology and emerging threats coning with their use is crucial for security of our societies. The article explore cyber security as one of the biggest challenges for today's interconnected world and how to achieve it resilient development and progress.
Keywords: cyber security, cyber globalization, stability
In the information age, all key sectors of the survival of mankind such as security, policy, management, business, finance, transport, infrastructure, post services, telecommunications, medicine and science are closely dependent on information and communication technology (ICT). This gives grounds to assert that the Internet increasingly acquires the characteristics of the "central nervous system of human society" and is inextricably linked with people's daily lives.
The Internet increasingly acquires the characteristics of the "central nervous system of human society" and is inextricably linked with people's daily lives.
Striking examples of this are the social networks that can rapidly affect the values, ideas and behavior of large social groups. In practice, internet gives unlimited possibilities for distribution of various ideologies and ideas related to democratic transformations of social relations and human rights (Armencheva, Smolenov, 2015a). The information revolution and the emerging threats set different from the current requirements for countries. In order to fulfill its functions, and particularly those related to national security, is required a construction and development of new capabilities for control and protection of information and communications from attacks by criminal gangs or by attempts to penetrate the systems of critical national information infrastructure. Moreover, individuals, guided by different motives can cause large, damage to critical infrastructure, which seriously challenge the power of institutions of large and small countries in their efforts to protect national security. Besides great physical potential and immediate financial losses, the very threat of possible future cyberattacks impunity breeds distrust and reluctance to work with the new technologies in society, which in turn leads to negative attitudes in the public opinion and questions the reliability of electronic, financial and medical resources and services. Even the loss of confidence itself can lead to enormous social and economic disruption. At the same time, new technologies and the Internet make different malicious impacts on critical infrastructure of individual countries (through the collection and use of confidential information related to national security and the deployment of information wars) easily accessible and create opportunities for criminal activities and attacks against both the interests of various public organizations and those of individual citizens (Zhelev, 2017a).
2. CONTEMPORARY CYBER SPACE AND GLOBAL (IN)SECURITY
Cyber space is not safer than the real world. Besides advantages that it gives in forms of virtual reality and entertainment, digital economy and market and more opportunities for citizens involvement in government decisions, cyber space has and another “dark side” – different forms of criminal activities, manipulation of public opinion and the new way of war - cyber wars.
In the era of nation-states before the emergence of the global society, power relations and political leadership were based mostly on economic and military superiority of the various entities at the national and international level. Government and international organizations have created and imposed legal and social norms and values by laws and treaties, to regulate in some extent the emerging armed conflicts. The basic principle has been linked to the inviolability of national borders and territorial integrity of the Contracting Parties. Aiming more successful realization of this principle, different countries have developed, and continue to develop various military and economic capabilities in land, air and sea domains.
The processes of globalization are completely new stage in development of human societies and that creates new dynamism in international relations. They change structure of international relation, centers of power and transform basic features of nation state. The old paradigm of ideological confrontation is not valid anymore because digital technologies create new forms of development in almost every sphere (political, economic, social and military), new habits and norms and new challenges. That enforce scholars to reanalyze the essence of globalization and it cyber space dimension or the emergence of cyber globalization. From philosophical point of view globalization is a new stage of evolution of humankind which inherited features are high- degree of self-organization and adjustability (Marinov, 2018a). Development of that evolution is a product from activities of public subjects and that makes it sort of purposeful common effort. The most prominent feature of that kind of efforts is governance. Although tools and mechanisms of the processes of cyber globalization are „details” they are important especially when it comes to ideological, political, economic and military dimensions.
Is there contradiction between the evolutional and governance aspect of cyber globalization processes? From evolutional aspect cyber globalization doesn`t fulfill the aim of creating integrated cyber space and equality between actors that operate within it. The evidence is actually opposite - the results are divisions and differentiations. From governance aspect the result is shift from universal, common to all mankind goals towards particular that serve to the interests of most powerful actors in cyberspace. At this stage of human development innovations create new global environment for interactions but in reality it is further development of classic colonialism which from economic and social after World War 2 become “technological” today. The result is that to economic and social underdevelopment of 80% of world population cyber globalization add and technological or another dividing line between rich and poor societies.
Influence of cyber globalization on politics, new geopolitical realities and interconnections between big political actors can`t be neglected. Despite that political and power relations are complex, global world is strongly influenced by rapid technological changes and determinism. The information revolution and internationalization are transforming contemporary security environment. One of the challenges that nation state faces in global cyber space is that most of things that happens in it are not under government control. Like it or not information revolution is changing the nature of power relations and make them more diffuse. Nowadays states operate in global information environment where new principals of political cooperation, competition and confrontation are established. In that environment political processes are happening in realtime, physical state borders disappear and the concept of geopolitics are changing. Nation states are still primary political actors on the world stage but their power steadily decrease so they are seeking to acquire new tools for power and influence based on access and possession of valuable or sensitive information and supremacy in information domain.
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Armencheva, Ilina and Bekiarova, Natalia and Ivanov, Ivaylo, Cyber Globalization as an In/Stability Factor (February 04, 2019). Proceedings of INTCESS 2019- 6th International Conference on Education and Social Sciences, 4-6 February 2019- Dubai, U.A.E. ISBN: 978-605-82433-5-4. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3332357